THE SPACE GENERATION ADVISORY COUNCIL: STUDENTS AND YOUNG PROFESSIONALS SHAPING THE FUTURE OF SPACE
Kate Howells and Adam Vigneron
Space Generation Advisory Council
Space is no longer reserved for a few, select nations. Lower launch costs, increasing expertise, and novel technologies has seen many new nations founding space agencies in the past 5 years alone. As more stakeholders from government and private sectors join the ever increasing space community, space law and policy must also evolve to govern current space activities while also addressing potential issues in the future.
Founded in 1999 following the Vienna Declaration, the Space Generation Advisory Council (SGAC) is a nonprofit organization for students and young professionals supporting the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. With over 4,000 volunteer members in over 90 countries, SGAC serves to reflect the views of students and young professionals in the space sector. Members meet throughout the year in fora, workshops, and congresses hosted by SGAC to discuss topics shaping the future of space exploration and peaceful use. SGAC is actively involved in dialogue with different stakeholders in the space sector and holds permanent observer status in the UN COPUOS and consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (UN ECOSOC), where it regularly presents policy recommendations.
This presentation will provide an overview of SGAC’s activities, highlighting outcomes of recent activities conducted by SGAC members and describing upcoming opportunities for involvement with SGAC to affect the future of the space community.
“Establishing Legal Certainty for Modern Space Activities by using Traditional Concepts of Civil Law: the Triptych of Usus, Fructus, Abusus and the Issue of Private Ownership of Celestial Bodies”
Commercialization of space activities has always been envisaged in science fiction scenarios; companies and individuals have been seen mining parts of outer space, i.e. mainly asteroids, and trading the products of their activities. Indeed, this fantasy is not a far cry from reality: Currently, major space affiliated companies have already started investing in the exploitation of the natural resources of celestial bodies. A series of reasons justifies such tendency: amelioration of the level of terrestrial live by securing alternative natural resources, enhancement of sustainable development and in situ exploitation of the material for space uses constitute some of them.
However, commercial exploitation of space natural resources requires the extraction of parts of celestial bodies, while the provisions of the corpus juris spatialis argue for a non-appropriable nature of outer space per se and of its parts. This contradiction raises questions such as: “Does the extraction of minerals from celestial bodies fall within the ambit of the notion appropriation?” and if so, “Is such use of outer space prohibited on the grounds of the non-appropriation principle of space law?”. And also: “What kind of interpretation of lex spatialis has to be undertaken in order to secure the legality of such activities without infringing traditional provisions and concepts of space law?”.
This paper seeks to find a way to strike the balance between the demands that derive from the commercialization of outer space and the respect that has to be granted to age-surviving concepts and principles of space law such as the “non-appropriation” principle. An analytical interpretation of the civil law triptych of usus, fructus, abusus will serve as the axis of this paper in order to build an interpretation of space law modernized and in favor of the needs of the current space industry and market.
Open Innovation in Space
The global space sector is rapidly changing in how the development and operation of space activities is undertaken. Commercial entities are gaining abilities once held only by super powers and governments, while countries around the world continue to create new space agencies. With the introduction of new space actors, and an increasingly commercial playing field, space innovation requires a new approach.
Open Innovation is a potential way of addressing the current challenges in the space sector that makes use of existing frameworks while taking advantage of increased accessibility to space and the public interest it generates. In this report we define Open Innovation as the process of strategically managing the sharing of ideas and resources among entities to co-create value. We explore existing methods of open innovation – such as crowd funding, crowd sourcing, prize models, and publicity partnerships - and how our definition can be applied to the space sector. The presentation will review and analyze the successes and failures of entities that have implemented an open innovation framework both in terrestrial and space applications. Finally, we examine how the principles of Open Innovation in various stages of your business plan can be applied to the new industry of asteroid mining.
Dr Howard Trottier
Simon Fraser University's new Trottier Astronomical Observatory and Science Courtyard is a high-profile public space that serves as a new focal point for campus and community life. The observatory houses a state-of-the art telescope and auxiliary equipment, and serves as the anchor of a courtyard that uses landscape architecture to convey the science of astronomy, and the wonders of the night sky. I'll give an overview of the observatory and the purpose of the courtyard architecture, and describe the uses of the facility, which include public outreach and student education.
For a title: "The Intersection of Commercial Space and Policy - A Survey of Current Developments"
For an abstract: The presentation will discuss the intersections between the current expansion in the commercial space sector and issues in space policy. The presentation will cover current trends in space commercialization and relate those trends to policy challenges and opportunities. Potential topics to be addressed include: regulatory implications of new space applications (e.g. space mineral resources exploration, commercial space stations); policy responses to cubesats and small satellites; and remote sensing data access policies. Mr. Christensen will also discuss Secure World Foundation’s activities in these areas.
A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CONVENTIONAL SHIELDING CONCEPTS FOR PROTECTING SPACECRAFT AGAINST SMALL-SIZE ORBITAL DEBRIS IMPACTS
In this work four conventional shielding concepts have been evaluated and compared in terms of their weight efficiency, when designed against small-size (1 mm in diameter) orbital debris impacts. The evaluated systems included Whipple shield, Stuffed Whipple Shield, Honeycomb-core sandwich panel and Aluminum foam core panel. Sizing of the shields was performed using ballistic limit equations and hydrocode numerical analyses in order to obtain designs of the minimal weight satisfying the "no-perforation" and manufacturability criteria. According to conducted numerical experiments, successful configurations were ranged in the following order (from the most efficient to less efficient):
1. Foam-core sandwich panel consisting of aluminum facesheets and a low-density aluminum foam core;
2. Stuffed Whipple Shield consisting of aluminum front bumper, Nextel and Kevlar/Epoxy stuffing and aluminum rear wall;
3. Whipple shield;
4. Honeycomb core sandwich panel consisting of aluminum facesheets separated by aluminum honeycomb.
Technical Session to submit to: Life Sciences
Authors: Nathan Going (presenter), Paul Graham, and Allen Roe
Abstract Title: A proposed OpenLuna Analogue Aquaponics Module to support exploration of extraterrestrial surfaces
The development of a sustainable system for food and oxygen production is an essential precursor for establishing long-term colonies on celestial bodies such as the moon and Mars. OpenLuna is dedicated towards pursuing the development of a permanent research base on the moon and has created an Analogue Aquaponics Module concept to support this goal. The concept involves the critical assessment and combination of current practices and technologies utilized in commercial hydroponic and aquaculture food production systems into a single module to provide a sustainable ecosystem capable of multiple benefits, including a reliable production of food and air. Considerations for inclusion of practices and technologies include the potential for adaptation, relevant redundancy, and ease of operation and maintenance in the harsh conditions commonly experienced in extraterrestrial environments. Initial considerations for the design includes size requirements for launch and final setup for production purposes, type of hydroponics to be used, type of aquatic life and crops to be produced, nutrient requirements, ambient climate control, operation in microgravity and low-pressure environments, organization of internal system components, and the materials to be used.
Once a prototype Analogue Aquaponics Module has been constructed, a standardized baseline will be generated with test animal and plant species. The overall intent is to test the module on its own or with improvements within various climates on Earth to simulate extraterrestrial environments and provide data for areas of improvement. Data will be recorded indicating plant development, crop yield, aquatic life behavior and survival rate, and bacterial proliferation. Lessons learned from the Module will guide the design of its lunar counterpart and indicate the viability of the system. This concept and supporting structural designs will offer a range of opportunities for the practical application of new and developing technologies targeted to overcome the challenges of sustainable food and oxygen production on the moon and Mars.
Dr. Deryck Persaud
Fatty Acids Supplementation to help curb the decline in bone and muscle mass during long stays in space.
Fatty acids are important molecules in the maintenance of healthy bone, brain and muscle tissues, and overall good immune response systems. In addition, fatty acids are important in the biosynthesis of various hormones that are involved in many biochemical pathways of the human metabolic profile. Astronauts usually experience loss of bone density and muscle mass during long stays in low to zero gravity environments and suffer from weakened immune response systems. In order to delay or attenuate bone and muscle loss and maintain general health and well-being, the use of a high-absorbency, high-concentration supplement containing a broad spectrum of fatty acids is required. This formulation should be in an optimized ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. In our talk we will discuss how a said type of supplement could maximize its beneficial effects during interaction in the human body.